Into the Labyrinth : A PhD Comprehensive Portfolio


STU, VW, X, Y, Z



Albion, P., Jones, D., Campbell, C., & Jones, J. (2017). Open educational practice and preservice teacher education: Understanding past practice and future possibilities. In P. Resta & S. Smith (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Alevizou, G. (2015). From OER to MOOCs: Critical perspectives on the historical mediation trajectories of open education. International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics, 11(2), 203–224.

Archer, M. S. (2008, June 19). Structure, agency and the internal conversation.

Armellini, A., & Nie, M. (2013). Open educational practices for curriculum enhancement. Open Learning, 28(1), 7–20.

Baker, F. (2016). Media literacy in the K-12 classroom (2nd ed.). ISTE.

Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). Discourse in the novel. In M. Holquist (Ed.), & C. Emerson & M. Holquist (Trans.), The dialogic imagination: Four essays by  M. M. Bahktin (pp. 259–422). University of Texas Press.

Bali, M., Caines, A., Hogue, R., DeWaard, H., & Friedrich, C. (2019). Intentionally equitable hospitality in hybrid video dialogue: The context of virtually connecting. ELearn Magazine.

Barrett, M. J. (2014). Responding to environmental crises through multi-media hypertextual research representation. In M. A. Peters, E. P. Hart, & A. Reid (Eds.), A Companion to Research in Education (pp. 569–574). Springer.

Bates, T. (2019, May 30). The coming crisis in Canadian post-secondary education: 3 – Some strategies for survival. Contact North: Online Learning and Distance Education Resources.

Bayne, S., Knox, J., & Ross, J. (2015). Open education: The need for a critical approach. Learning, Media and Technology, 40(3), 247–250.

Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L., & Littlejohn, A. (2012). Open practices: Briefing paper [Wiki].

Belshaw, D. (2012, July 12). On the important differences between literacies, skills and competencies. Open Educational Thinkering.

Blomgren, C. (2018). OER awareness and use: The affinity between higher education and K-12. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(2).

Boote, D. N., & Biele, P. (2006). On “Literature reviews of, and for, educational research”: A response to the critique by Joseph Maxwell. Educational Researcher, 35(9), 32–35.

boyd,  d. (2010). Social network sites as networked publics: Affordances, dynamics, and implications. In Z. Papacharissi (Ed.), Self: Identity, Community, and Culture on Social Network Sites. (pp. 39–58). Routledge.

Boyd, L. (2015, December 15). After watching this, your brain will not be the same | Lara Boyd.

Bozkurt, A., Koseoglu, S., & Singh, L. (2019). An analysis of peer reviewed publications on openness in education in half a century: Trends and patterns in the open hemisphere. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(4).

Brockmann, M. (2011). Problematising short-term participant observation and multimethod ethnographic studies. Ethnography and Education, 6(2), 229–243.

Burrell, J. (2009). The field site as a network: A strategy for locating ethnographic research. Field Methods, 21(2), 181–199.

Buss, R. R., Foulger, T. S., Wetzel, K., & Lindsey, L. (2018). Preparing teachers to integrate technology into K–12 instruction II: Examining the effects of technology-infused methods courses and student teaching. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 34(3), 134–150.

Caines, A. (2016, June 19). LOOM’in Large (or perhaps small) at T3 and NMC16. Retrieved May 2, 2020, from

Caldwell, S. (2013). Statistics Unplugged (4th ed.). Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Calvino, I. (1979). A winter’s night a traveler. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Carretero Gomez, S., Vuorikari, R., & Punie, Y. (2017). DigComp 2.1: The digital competence framework for citizens with eight proficiency levels and examples of use (EUR 28558 EN). Publications Office of the European Union.

Carter, S., & Little, M. (2007). Justifying knowledge, justifying method, taking action: Epistemologies, methodologies, and methods in qualitative research. Qualitative Health Research, 17(10), 1316–1328. 10.1177/1049732307306927

Chen, D. T., Wang, Y. M., & Lee, W. C. (2016). Challenges confronting beginning researchers in conducting literature reviews. Studies in Continuing Education, 38(1), 47–60.

Choi, M., Cristol, D., & Gimbert, B. (2018). Teachers as digital citizens: The influence of individual backgrounds, internet use and psychological characteristics on teachers’ levels of digital citizenship. Computers & Education, 121, 143–161.

Clandinin, D. J. (2015). Stories to live by on the professional knowledge landscape. Waikato Journal of Education, Special 20th Edition Anniversary Collection, 183–193.

Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC). (2020). Pan-Canadian systems-level framework on global competencies: Literature review.

Codington-Lacerte, C. (n.d.). Cognitivism (psychology). In Salem Press Encyclopedia.

Collier, D. R. (2018). Doodling, borrowing, and remixing: Students inquiring across digitized spaces. The Reading Teacher, 72(1), 125–130.

Combs, J. P., Bustamante, R. M., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2010). An interactive model for facilitating development of literature reviews. International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 4(2), 159–182.

Competency. (2020). OED Online. Oxford University Press.

Connelly, F. M., Clandinin, D. J., & Ming, F. H. (1997). Teachers’ personal practical knowledge on the professional knowledge landscape. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13(7), 665–674.

Cormier, D. (2008, October 2). The CCK08 MOOC – Connectivism course, 1/4 way – Dave’s Educational Blog. Retrieved May 2, 2020, from

Couros, A. (2006). Examining the open movement: Possibilities and implications for education [Dissertation, University of Regina].

Couros, A. (2010). Developing personal learning networks for open and social learning. In G. Veletsianos (Ed.), Emerging technologies in distance education (pp. 109–127). Athabasca University Press.

Couros, A., & Hildebrandt, K. (2016). Designing for open and social learning. In G. Veletsianos (Ed.), Emergence and innovation in digital learning: Foundations and applications. Athabasca University Press.

Covey, D. T. (2013). Opening the Dissertation: Overcoming Cultural Calcification and Agoraphobia. TripleC, 11(2), 543–557.

Crawley, J. (2018). “Mapping backward” and “looking forward” by the ’invisible educators’—Reimaging research seeking “common features of effective teacher preparation.” Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 23(1), 23–34.

Creswell, J. W., & Guetterman, T. C. (2019). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (6th ed.). Pearson.

Cronin, C., & MacLaren, I. (2018). Conceptualising OEP: A review of theoretical and empirical literature in Open Educational Practices. Open Praxis, 10(2), 127–143.

Cronin, C. (2016). OER16: A critical turn.

Cronin, C. (2017a). Openness and praxis: Exploring the use of open educational practices in higher education. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(5).

Cronin, C. (2017b, May 11). Open Education Risks and Rewards [Audio Podcast Episode]. In Teaching in Higher Ed.

Dalton, B., Perez, L., & Grant, K. (2015). SOOC course overview [Course site]. Retrieved May 2, 2020, from

Daviet, B. (2016). Revisiting the principle of education as a public good (ED-2016/WP/1). UNESCO.

de Vries, E. (2003). Educational technology and multimedia from a cognitive perspective: Knowledge from inside the computer, onto the screen, and into our heads? In H. van Oostendorp (Ed.), Cognition in a digital world (pp. 155–174). Psychology Press.

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). The Sage Handbook of qualitative research (3rd Edition). Sage.

Denzin, N. K. (2017). Critical qualitative inquiry.

Denzin, N. K, & Lincoln, Y. S. (2011). Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In Norman K Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (4th ed., pp. 1–20). Sage Publications Inc.

Denzin, N. K, & Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds.). (2013). Collecting and interpreting qualitative materials (4th ed.). SAGE Publishing Inc.

DeVries, R. (2008). Piaget and Vygotsky: Theory and Practice in Early Education. In 21st century education: A reference handbook (pp. 184–193). SAGE Publications, Inc.

DeWaard, H. (2016a). Using video to humanize online instruction. In W. Kilgore (Ed.), Humanizing online teaching and learning. Pressbooks.

DeWaard, H. (2016b). Voice and video instructor feedback to enhance instructor presence. In W. Kilgore (Ed.), Humanizing online teaching and learning. Pressbooks.

DeWaard, H. (2019, February 13). You’ve been cited! Step By Step.

Dewey, J. (1916). Chapter 7: The democratic conception in education. In Democracy and Education (pp. 85–104). Penn State.

Dixon, D. (2014). Endless Question: Endless Questions: How to think while playing. Endless Question: Youth Becomings and the Anti-Crisis of Kids in Global Japan. [Dissertation].

Eco, U. (1984). Semiotics and the philosophy of language. Indiana University Press.

Ehlers, U.-D. (2011). Extending the territory: From open educational resources to open educational practices. Journal of Open, Flexible, and Distance Learning, 15(2), 1–10.

Ellingson, L. L. (2009). Engaging crystallization in qualitative research: An introduction. Sage Publications Inc.

Ellingson, L. L. (2014). “The truth must dazzle gradually”: Enriching relationship research using a crystallization framework. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 31(4), 442–450.

Ellingson, L. L. (2017). Authoring: Telling a research story. In M. Allen (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of communication research methods (pp. 66–69). SAGE Publications, Inc.

Exploratorium EDU. (n.d.). Liminality: Art on the threshold. [website].

Eze, M. O. (2010). Intellectual history in contemporary South Africa (1st ed). Palgrave Macmillan.

Farrow, R. (2015). Open education and critical pedagogy. Learning, Media & Technology, 42(2), 130–146. 91.

Farrow, R. (2016). Constellations of openness In M. Deimann & M. Peters, (Eds.). In The philosophy and theory of open education. Peter Lang Publishing.

Federman, M. (2004, July 23). What is the Meaning of The Medium is the Message? The McLuhan Program in Culture and Technology.

Fine, M. (1994). Working the hyphens: Re-inventing Self and Other in Qualitative Research. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research. SAGE Publications, Inc.

Fluency. (2020). OED Online. Oxford University Press.

Forkosh-Baruch, A., & Avidov-Ungar, O. (2019). ICT implementation in colleges of education: A framework for teacher educators. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 18, 207–229.

Foucault, M. (1988). Technologies of the self.

Foulger, T. S., Graziano, K. J., Schmidt-Crawford, D., & Slykhuis, D. A. (2017). Teacher educator technology competencies. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 25(4), 413–448.

Freire, P. (1998). Pedagogy of freedom: Ethics, democracy, and civic courage. Rowman & Littlefield.

Freire, P. (2009). From pedagogy of the oppressed. Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts, 2(2), 163–174.

Gallagher, T., & Rowsell, J. (2017). Untangling Binaries: Where Canada sits in the “21st century debate.” McGill Journal of Education, 52(2), 383–407.

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 7–23.

Gatin, G. (2013). Keeping your distance. Grounded Theory Review, 12(1), 9–25.

Gee, J. P. (2015). Literacy and education. Routledge.

Gee, J. P. (2017). Teaching, learning, literacy in our high-risk high-tech world: A framework for becoming human. Teachers College Press.

Geller, L. (1982). The Failure of Self-Actualization Theory: A Critique of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 22(2), 56–73.

Geser, G. (Ed.). (2012). Open educational practices and resources: OLCOS roadmap 2012. Research EduMedia.

Ghosh, V., & Gilboa, A. (2014). What is a memory schema? A historical perspective on current neuroscience literature. Neuropsychologia, 53, 104–114.

Giroux, H. A. (2010). Lessons from Paulo Freire. Chronicle of Higher Education, 57(9), B15–B16.

Goodwin, A. L., & Kosnik, C. (2013). Quality teacher educators = quality teachers? Conceptualizing essential domains of knowledge for those who teach teachers. Teacher Development, 17, 334–346.

Gorodetsky, M., & Barak, J. (2016). Becoming learners/teachers in nomadic space. Teachers and Teaching: Theories and Practice, 22(1), 84–100.

Graff, G., & Birkenstein, C. (2018). They say, I say: The moves that matter in academic writing (4th ed.). W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Grant, C., & Osanloo, A. (2014). Understanding, selecting, and integrating a theoretical framework in dissertation research: Creating the blueprint for your "house”. Administrative Issues Journal: Education, Practice, and Research, 4(2), 12–26.

Grizzle, A., & Singh, J. (n.d.). MIL five laws english.png. UNESCO. Retrieved April 17, 2020, from

Grizzle, A., Torras Calvo, M. C., Moore, P., Dzuanni, M., Asthana, S., Wilson, C., Banda, F., & Onumagh, C. (2013). Media and information literacy: Policy and strategy guidelines. UNESCO Digital Library.

Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences. In Norman K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research (3rd ed., pp. 191–215). Sage Publications.

Guiney Yollop, J. (2008). Out of place: A poetic journey through the emotional landscape of a gay person’s identities within/without communities. [PhD dissertation]. Western University.

Gupta, S. (2017). Ethical Issues in Designing Internet-Based Research: Recommendations for Good Practice. Journal of Research Practice, 13(2), 1–14.

Halbert, K., & Chigeza, P. (2015). Navigating Discourses of Cultural Literacy in Teacher Education. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 40(40).

Haraway, D. (1988). Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. Feminist Studies, 14(3), 575–599.

Hart, C. (1998). Doing a literature review: Releasing the social science imagination. Sage Publications.

Harwood, D., & Collier, D. R. (2017). The matter of the stick: Storying/ (re)storying children’s literacies in the forest. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 17(3), 336–352.

Hegarty, B. (2015). Attributes of open pedagogy: A model for using open educational resources. Educational Technology, 11.

Hine, C. (2015). Ethnography for the Internet: Embedded, embodied and everyday. Bloomsburg Academic.

Hobbs, R. (2017). Create to Learn: Introduction to digital literacy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hobbs, R. (2019, February 10). Defining Digital Literacy. Renee Hobbs at the Media Education Lab.

Hodgkinson-Williams, C., & Gray, E. (2009). Degrees of Openness: The emergence of Open Educational Resources at the University of Cape Town. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 5(5), 101–116.

Hoechsmann, M. (2019). Pedagogy, Precarity, and Persuasion: The Case for Re/mix Literacies. The International Journal of Critical Media Literacy, 93–101.

Hoechsmann, M., & Poyntz, R. S. (2012). Media literacies: A critical introduction. Wiley.

Hoechsmann, M., & DeWaard, H. (2015). Mapping digital literacy policy and practice in the Canadian education landscape. Media Smarts Canada.

hooks,  bell. (1994). Teaching to transgress: Education as the practice of freedom. Routledge.

Horton, F. W. (2008). Understanding information literacy: A primer. UNESCO Digital Library [Document Archives]. UNESCO.

Horton, M., & Freire, P. (1990). We make the road by walking: Conversations on education and social change (B. Bell, J. Gaventa, & J. Peters, Eds.). Temple University Press.

Hoy, W. K., & Adams, C. M. (2016). Quantitative Research in Education: A Primer (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications Inc.

Huss, O., & Keudel, O. (2020). Open government in education: Clarifying concepts and mapping initiatives. UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning.

Ihde, D. (1978). Technics and praxis (Vol. 24). Springer Netherlands.

Ihde, D. (2004). Has the philosophy of technology arrived? A state‐of‐the‐art review. Philosophy of Science, 71(1), 117–131.

Ihde, D. (2011). Stretching the in-between: Embodiment and beyond. Foundations of Science, 16(2–3), 109–118.

Ihde, D. (2012). Postphenomenological re-embodiment. Foundations of Science, 17(4), 373–377.

Ihde, D., & Malafouris, L. (2019a). Homo faber Revisited: Postphenomenology and Material Engagement Theory. Philosophy & Technology, 32(2), 195–214.

Inamorato dos Santos, A., Punie, Y., & Castaño Muñoz, J. (2016). Opening up education: A support framework for higher education institutions (EUR 27938; p. 79). (online)

Inamorato dos Santos, A. (2019). Practical guidelines on open education for academics: Modernising higher education via open educational practices based on the OpenEdu framework (No. JRC115663). Joint Research Centre (JRC), The European Commission Science and Knowledge Service.

Ito, M., Baumer, S., Bittanti, M., boyd,  danah, Cody, R., Herr-Setphenson, B., Horst, H. A., Lange, P. G., Mahendran, D., Martinez, K. Z., Pascoe, C. J., Perkel, D., Robinson, L., Sims, C., & Tripp, L. (2010). Hanging out, messing around, and geeking out: Kids living and learning with new media. The MIT Press.

Izadinia, M. (2014). Teacher educators’ identity: A review of the literature. European Journal of Teacher Education, 37(4), 426–441.

Jacobs, D. T. (2008). “Flight of Ducks”: Electronic dissertations Simon Pockley’s story with Glen Gatin. In D. T. Jacobs (Ed.), The authentic dissertation: Alternative ways of knowing, research and representation (pp. 244–250). Routledge.

Jacobs, D. T. (2008). The authentic dissertation: Alternative ways of knowing, research, and representation. Taylor & Francis Inc.

Jaipal-Jamani, K., Figg, C., Collier, D., Gallagher, T., Winters, K., & Ciampa, K. (2018). Developing TPACK of university faculty through technology leadership roles. Journal of Educational Technology.

Jenkins, H., Purushotma, R., Weigel, M., Clinton, K., & Robison, A. J. (2009). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. MIT Press.

Jenkins, H. (2010, June 21). Transmedia Education: The 7 Principles Revisited. Henry Jenkins.

Jhangiani, R., & DeRosa, R. (2018, March 16). Open Pedagogy. Open Pedagogy Notebook.

Jones, J. K. (2013). Into the labyrinth: Persephone’s journey as metaphor and method for research. In W. Midgley, K. Trimmer, & A. Davies (Eds.), Metaphors for, in and of education research (pp. 66–90). Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Jožef Stefan Institute Centre for Knowledge Transfer in Information Technologies (CT3). (2020). Open Education for a Better World – International online mentoring program.

Keats, P. A. (2009). Multiple text analysis in narrative research: Visual, written, and spoken stories of experiences. Qualitative Research, 9(2), 181–195.

Kennedy, J. (2016). Being, Belonging, and Becoming in Immersive Complexity: A Post-Intentional Phenomenological Analysis of Connectedness in Doctoral Students’ Personal Learning Networks [PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota].

Kilbourne, B. (2001). The art and structure of a first paragraph. Teachers College Record.

Kim, D. (2018). A framework for implementing OER-based lesson design activities for pre-service teachers. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(4).

Kimmons, R. (2016). Expansive Openness in Teacher Practice. Teachers College Record, 118(9), 1–26.

Kirschner, P., Sweller, J., Kirschner, F., & Zambrano, J. (2018). From cognitive load theory to collaborative cognitive load theory. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 13(2), 213–232.

Korteweg, L. (2014). Representations 1.0, 2.0, 3.0. In A. Reid, P. Hart, & M. Peters (Eds.), A companion to research in education (pp. 575–582). Springer Science+Business Media.

Kosnik, C., Miyata, C., Cleovoulou, Y., Fletcher, T., & Menna, L. (2015). The education of teacher educators. In T. Falkenberg (Ed.), Handbook of Canadian Research in Initial Teacher Education, 207–224. Retrieved from

Kranzler, J. H. (2018). Statistics for the terrified (6th ed.). Rowman & Littlefield.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Just what is critical race theory and what’s it doing in a nice field like education? International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(1), 7–24.

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Law, N., Woo, D., de la Torre, J., & Wong, G. (2018). A global framework of reference on digital literacy skills for indicator 4.4.2. UNESCO Institute for Statistics.

Lemos, G., & Nascimbeni, F. (2016). ELINET position paper on digital literacy. European Literacy Policy Network.

Literat, I., Conover, A., Herbert-Wasson, E., Kirsch Page, K., Riina-Ferrie, J., Stephens, R., Thanapornsangsuth, S., & Vasudevan, L. (2018). Toward multimodal inquiry: Opportunities, challenges and implications of multimodality for research and scholarship. Higher Education Research & Development, 37(3), 565–578.

Lohnes Watulak, S. (2016). Reflection in action: Using inquiry groups to explore critical digital literacy with pre-service teachers. Educational Action Research, 24(4), 503–518.

Lohnes Watulak, S. (2018). Making space for preservice teacher agency through connected learning in preservice educational technology courses. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 34(3), 166–178.

Lohnes Watulak, S., Woodard, R., Smith, A., Johnson, L., Phillips, N., & Wargo, K. (2018). Connected Teaching and Learning in K-16+ Contexts: An Annotated Bibliography. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 18(2), 289–312.

Lowenthal, P., & Muth, R. (2009). Constructivism. In E. F. Provenzo Jr. & A. B. Provenzo (Eds.), Encyclopedia of the Social and Cultural Foundations of Education (pp. 178–179). Sage.

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Luse, A., Mennecke, B., & Townsend, A. (2012). Selecting a research topic: A framework for doctoral students. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 7, 143–152.

Luttrell, W. (2000). “Good enough” methods for ethnographic research. Harvard Educational Review, 70(4), 499.

Markham, A. N. (2016, January 20). Ethnography in the digital internet era: From fields to flows, descriptions to interventions [Online article].

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Markham, A. N., & Buchanan, E. (2012). Ethical Decision-Making and Internet Research: Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee (Version 2.0) AOIR Ethics Working Committee.

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Paskevicius, M. (2017). Conceptualizing open educational practices through the lens of constructive alignment. Open Praxis, 9(2), 125–140.

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Paskevicius, M., & Irvine, V. (2019). Open Education and Learning Design: Open Pedagogy in Praxis. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2019(1), 10.

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